This document accompanies the database of mitigation options. The goal of this document is to explain why and how the database was compiled.
In line with the Paris Agreement, the European Union (EU) targets to cut member states’ emissions by 80-95% by year 2050 (see EU Energy Roadmap 2050). While models exist trying to predict whether and how such targets could be met, no up-to-date knowledge exists on the actually conducted research, development and innovation (RD&I) of the EU to commit to the target. This deliverable is aimed to fill this knowledge gap. It is a horizon scan of FP6, FP7 and Horizon 2020 RD&I projects on mitigation.
This report reviews those technologies that have the highest mitigation potential to enable a greenhouse gas emissions reductions target of 95% or more across the EU economy. Such a climate policy target requires transformational technology changes well beyond efficiency improvements in all sectors of the economy. Developing technologies with the highest mitigation potential in all major sectors of the economy should be prioritised for future research. Information on mitigation potential of technologies in sectors is contrasted with data on how funding for mitigation technology development has been distributed across different sectors so far.
The Paris Agreement demands fast action on climate change. In order to achieve its objectives of limiting global temperature rise to well below 2°C, and strive for limiting it to 1.5°C, economies have to reduce emissions significantly and rapidly. Innovative climate change mitigation technologies that entail radically
different practices than conventional technologies will need to be part of this global endeavour, particularly since incremental improvements and efficiency gains of conventional technologies and methods of producing, transporting and consuming goods and services will not be sufficient to tackle the climate challenge. Many such new technologies are available to address climate change. However, many also face significant challenges. Based on previous work carried out in the CARISMA project, this working paper explores some technologies needed that enable deep decarbonisation in multiple sectors, in particular hydrogen (in the steel industry and transport), energy storage, carbon dioxide capture and storage, heating, cooling and more efficient envelopes for buildings, biofuels for aviation, and improved fertiliser use and livestock management (agriculture). We focus our analysis not only on their technological readiness level (TRL) but also on their economic, environmental and social barriers and enablers, once they would be mature enough for increased market uptake and diffusion. We then explore funding streams available to these technologies for research, development and demonstration (RD&D) in order to ready them for society and the market. Recommendations for resolving issues and making use of enabler include living up to the research and development spending commitments made earlier in the EU, aligning innovation funding better with future market uptake, reforming markets and putting the right kind of incentives in place for market uptake, and giving society and users a voice in the development of new technologies.