Assessment of technologies for climate change mitigation
For two technology options for mitigation - of Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) and Solar Photovoltaic (Solar PV) - this report contains an overview of issues for further research in order to enable their further development, deployment and diffusion. The report identifies research gaps and priority areas for further research, and provides insights for policy decision on both technology options. The analysis in the report is based on assessment of stakeholder perspectives and concerns and review of scientific literature.
This report includes system costs in the macroeconomic assessment of wind and PV moving beyond classical LCOE assessments of renewable energy expansion and showed the critical importance of incorporating macroeconomic effects and feedbacks for policy evaluation and design.
In the face of climate change it is clear that we need to adjust the way we produce our energy. There are many different climate change mitigation technologies, four of which will be discussed in this report: 1. Wind farms over Northwestern Europe, using realistic wind speed data; 2. Solar parks based on global solar radiation data; 3. Bio Energy Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), a relatively new technique where the CO2 emissions caused by the biomass burning are captured and stored; 4. Direct Air Capture (DAC), also known as artificial trees, this mitigation technology where CO2 is captured from the ambient air is still in the experimental phase.
This policy brief sheds light on the question of what social implications climate technologies might have and how fear of and opposition to those implications are voiced by different stakeholder groups, and gives recommendations on how to respond. Findings from studies on bio-energy and carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), direct air capture of CO2 (DAC) and smart grids are brought together. Inclusiveness and openness are needed to avoid ‘one-size fits all’ approaches which might be challenged by communities affected by climate technologies, and to identify much-needed opportunities and co-benefits of mitigation technologies.
The EU "Winter Package" contains specific goals for energy and climate and calls upon Member States to formulate Integrated National Energy and Climate Plans (INECPs). While the energy and climate goals of the EU require scaling up of climate change mitigation technologies, integrating such options in existing economic and social structures is not always easy. Building further on the insights from the CARISMA project, this report analyses issues that Member State policy makers may face when formulating INECPs and scaling up technology options for mitigation. These issues are then analysed as case studies for three EU Member States: Greece, Austria and the Netherlands.